About: including history of typesetting, the Dumbing-Down of New Yorkers and an Obit (though this blog really has nothing to do with any of this)

mergenthaler

Ottmar! You’ve done it!

First, this is not associated with Linotype AG, a German company.  They have their own website and purpose for existence.

OK, then what is this about?  And the funny name, huh?  Well…?

This site is concerned with getting out the concept that the application of existing medical technology may be of use in the parapsychological field, specifically, towards the ends of utilizing our minds to tap into–in an uncolored way–the reserve of information “out there” that is there for the taking… all for the benefit of and advancement of mankind. See the main post here.

Now, some explanation on the name.  I’m using the old name generically/historically here in a fair-use sense to convey a nostalgic tone of  a previously high tech component of a way that news was disseminated.  Guess I could have chosen something like CarrierPigeon.com, MorseTelegraph.biz or RailwayPostoffice.gov, but none of them had quite the flow of what I chose.  I’d tried for mergenthaler.wordpress.com but it was taken by some German.

I am using the name in the same sense that the old Bloomington (Ind.) Herald Telephone used its name:  to convey by association something it wished to be related to.  In that now-renamed paper’s case, it was to latch onto what initially was a cutting-edge technology, which was a new way to disseminate information (some veteran Bloomington newspaper readers still occasionally lapse into calling the paper The HeraldTelephone; see linked article…. Also, there was a London Evening News and Telephone, ca. 1887).  In my case, I’m doing the reverse in a retro sense:  also using a name related with the dissemination of information but with a nostalgic hook.  I know, it’s sort of a stretch.

From www.linotypefilm.com:

On July 3rd, 1886, the German clockmaker, Ottmar Mergenthaler demonstrated the first Linotype Type Casting Machine at the New York Tribune in New York City. In front of a gathering of printers, newspaper men and reporters, the machine was first put in to production, casting lines of printable type for the Tribune.

At this demonstration, Mergenthaler sat at the machine and cast the first line of type. It is alleged that Whitelaw Reid, the owner of the Tribune, exclaimed “Ottmar! You’ve done it! A line of type!” A reporter asked what the new machine was called and Reid replied, “Why yes, we do have a name. We are going to call it the Linotype.”

This simple demonstration was the culmination of 10 years of extremely hard work by Mergenthaler. His genius and skills were put to the task of inventing a machine that would revolutionize the world. His Linotype sped up the production of printable type and singlehandedly caused the biggest revolution in printing and communication since Gutenberg.

It can be said that the Linotype was the “Twitter of 1886” for it sped up the spread of information at a dramatic rate. Without the Linotype, news and information moved slowly, but now, people could read the news within hours of the event. Due to the speed and low cost of printing, literacy dramatically increased as more and more books and newspapers were published.

So let us always remember July 3rd, the genius inventor, Ottmar Mergenthaler and his fascinating machine that revolutionized the world.

Here’s some background on this old technology which I think is interesting in and of itself.

Ye Olde Mergenthaler, circa 1890s (yes, they called them just mergenthalers besides linotypes)

Ye Olde Mergenthaler, circa 1890s (yes, they called them just Mergenthalers besides linotypes)

Ottmar Merganthaler was born on the 11th of May, 1854 in the tiny German village of Hachel. Arriving in Baltimore in 1872, Merganthaler took a job in the Hahn Company machine shop, which produced models for the U.S. Patent office, it was here that he met James O. Clephane. Clephane was a Supreme Court reporter and former secretary to William H. Seward who was part of President Lincoln’s cabinet during the Civil War. Clephane was an early developer of shorthand writing systems and a proponent of the first typewriters. Seeking a way to quickly and efficiently reproduce his typewritten documents he recruited Merganthaler. After several years of painstaking work Merganthaler developed a machine which combined the tasks of casting and setting type. First patented in 1884 and used commercially in 1886 at the New York Tribune, Merganthaler’s invention became known as the Linotype.

The machine had long vertical parallel bars, each bearing a complete alphabet of metal type or dies, and a fingerboard by which the selected letters for a line, one on each bar, could be brought into alignment and impressed in papier-mache, thus producing one after another justified matrix lines; the papier-mache matrices thus produced being transferred to a second machine from which the slugs or linotypes were cast, one at a time, line after line.

In October, 1891, a new company, the Mergenthaler Linotype Company of New York, was formed and succeeded to the holdings of the older companies. The Mergenthaler Printing Company and the National Typographic Company had expended upward of two million dollars and had exhausted their capital. The new company was provided with a cash capital of only $374,000, and it was with this limited capital that Mr. Dodge was required to reestablish and carry on the business. The first dividend was not paid until August, 1894.

The Linotype Company had Mr. Philip T. Dodge, of Washington, as president and general manager. Mr. Dodge was a young patent attorney of Washington, and had prepared and solicited the patents on the Linotype from a very early period. He took hold of the business as president and general manager in November, 1891. The There was no ownership of real estate. The tool equipment was limited and imperfect, and the factory consisted of a small leased building. The machine at that time was far from perfect and worked in a more or less unsatisfactory fashion. He had the opposition of those who feared that their trade would be ruined, and of those who were skeptical in view of the vast sums that had been lost in the typesetting machine business.

Linotype machines revolutionized the printing industry in the late 19th century. Newspapers and print shops throughout the world were quick to adopt Merganthaler’s invention. The increases in efficiency brought about by the Linotype machine greatly reduced the cost of printed material making things like books, newspapers and magazines available to a much larger populace. Continuous improvements have been made to the Linotype throughout the years as evidenced by the over 1000 linotype related patents taken out. Linotypes were a mainstay of the printing industry through the better part of the 20th century and are still in use in some print shops today.

The early 1890s was a period when newspaper, book, and magazine printers tried out the new composing machines entering the market. Various contests and demonstrations were held, with the Linotype usually producing the best records. Organized labor initially had qualms about a machine that they feared would put its printers out of work, but by 1900 their objections had largely subsided as union printers had taken control of the machines and the demand for printed material had increased. Both before and after Mergenthaler’s death, the Mergenthaler company defended its patents against interference and infringement by competing machines. It also bought out a competitor in 1895 to obtain patent rights for the crucial double-wedge spaceband used in justifying the lines of type. The Linotype thus “held the field” until after the inventor’s principal patents expired and the competing Intertype was introduced in 1913.

Linotypes were extensively improved over the years as installation proceeded in a majority of the nation’s printing plants. The hot-type systems using them began their decline after World War II. Intense labor problems and the adoption of offset printing and cold-type photocomposition methods (and later computers) coincided with publishers’ desires for lower costs. The Mergenthaler company ended U.S. production in 1971 after building nearly 90,000 Linotypes. Probably a few thousand were still in use in the United States in the early 1990s.

The Merganthaler Linotype Company continued until 1987 when a company from Germany acquired it and its name was changed to Linotype AG.

(above history from Linotype Organization); another history below from http://typophile.com/node/13676? :

The Mergenthaler Linotype Co. was founded by Ottmar Mergenthaler in 1890, Brooklyn, NY. He moved the production of his Linotype Machine—the “Blower”—there from its first factory in Baltimore.

Over then next century, Linotype would manufacture a series of hot metal, photo, and digital typesetting machines. Their library of typefaces for these machines (and later for personal computers), would reach the thousands.

The Mergenthaler Linotype Co. grew quickly, creating international subsidiaries and forging partnerships the world over. Linotype & Machinery, Ltd. was founded in England, also in 1890. In 1896, The Mergenthaler Casting Machines company opened shop in Germany. D. Stempel AG, Hass, and many others began producing Linotype matrices for their clients. Eventually, they would become part of the Linotype organization itself.

The American Mergenthaler Linotype Co. remained the mother company at the center of the global Linotype entity until the 1980s. Thereafter, its assets were purchased by German interests, who formed Linotype AG in 1987.

Mergenthaler Linotype developed a slew of typefaces that are now part of the present-day Linotype’s digital collection: Ionic, Excelsior, Bell Gothic, Metro, Electra, Caledonia, and many more. Designers who have worked for Mergenthaler Linotype include David Berlow, Matthew Carter, William Addison Dwiggins, Chauncey H. Griffith, and Rudolf Ruzicka.

In 1987, Mergenthaler-Linotype GmbH was acquired by the German Commerzbank. They floated the company onto the German stock market under the name “Linotype AG.”

In 1990, Linotype AG merged with Dr.-Ing Rudolf Hell GmbH to become Linotype-Hell AG. They company was later bought by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG, who reorganized it as a subsidiary named Linotype Library (since 2005 simply “Linotype GmbH).

Today, Linotype GmbH is owned by Monotype Imaging.

And more:

Linotype carries on a 120 year old heritage. Famous names like Linotype-Hell AG, D. Stempel AG, Haas’sche Schriftgießerei and Deberny & Peignot are the roots of Linotype. Ottmar Mergenthaler made his mark in history as the inventor of the type setting machine. Mergenthaler’s breakthrough soon became known as the Linotype. Quickly adopted by major newspapers around the world, the Linotype initiated a new freedom in the creation of everything from newspapers to books, from advertisements to a wide range of literature. With this invention Ottmar Mergenthaler could indeed be called the founder of the later Linotype group of companies.

(from:  http://www.linotype.com/49/history.html)

The Linotype sped up printing production by mechanizing the process of setting type that is printed for newspapers and books. Before Mergenthaler’s invention, typesetting was a time-consuming process that was done by hand and was the major bottleneck in the production of printing.

The Linotype casts an entire line of type at one time (hence the name “Line o’ Type”). It produces printable type six times faster than a person. With the invention of the Linotype, the printing of newspapers and books skyrocketed. This dramatically changed journalism and society as a whole.

Ottmar Mergenthaler emigrated from Germany to Baltimore, Maryland in 1872. While employed by his cousin, he began working on the complex challenge of mechanical typesetting. Although many people were competing to invent a machine that could set type mechanically, it was Mergenthaler’s mechanical genius that eventually found the solution. His first working machine was put into service at the New York Tribune in 1886.

The Linotype was the machine everyone was waiting for. Even a syndicate of investors that tried to control the Linotype could not stop the almost instantaneous popularity of the machine. Sadly, Mergenthaler never saw the full impact of his invention as he died of tuberculosis in 1899 at the age of 45.

The Linotype quickly became an indispensable part of the printing industry. By the early 20th century, there were tens of thousands of machines in service all over the world in many different languages. The explosion of printing created jobs for highly-skilled workers that became specialists in the Linotype.

Photo typesetting technology began to overtake the Linotype in the early 1950s. By the 1970s, the Linotype was no longer state-of-the-art, and printers started scrapping the machines because they were thought to be obsolete. Today, very few machines exist. Even fewer are in operation.

(from www.linotypefilm.com/resources.html)

ottmar vimeo

From Wikipedia:

The Mergenthaler Linotype Company was founded in the United States in 1886 to market the linecaster invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler. With the company’s primary product, the Linotype, it became the world’s leading manufacturer of book and newspaper typesetting equipment; outside North America, its only serious challenger for book production was the United States-/England-based Monotype Corporation.

The invention of a machine to replace the labor-intensive task of setting type by hand was one that many inventors had tackled during the 19th Century. The difficulty was not in creating the text, but in returning the characters to a proper position for future use. Mergenthaler solved this problem by placing type molds on the sides of specially keyed matrices.

The matrices would be lined up and hot lead alloy forced to fill the matrices, creating the line of type. Then the matrices would progress through the machine, where a special keying system on one end of the matrix, unique for each character, would allow the matrix to drop only into the correct storage slot, ready for future use.

Another problem Mergenthaler solved was in justifying the type, giving flush margins on the left and right. Hand compositors did this by using spaces of different widths in a line, to ensure that the lines all ended at the same point. Mergenthaler came up with the “space band”, a device consisting of two wedges of metal connected loosely. When a line of type was being cast, these wedges would be shortened, making spaces larger, or tightened, which made the space wider as the wedges became thicker where the casting occurred. The space bands were stored for reuse in a different location from the matrices.

The company, as so many in the printing industry, endured a complex post-war history, during which printing technology went through two revolutions — first moving to phototypesetting, then to digital.

Through a series of mergers and reorganizations, the business of Mergenthaler Linotype Company ultimately vested in Linotype-Hell AG, a German Company. In April 1997, Linotype-Hell AG was acquired by Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG. The following month certain divisions of Linotype-Hell AG were spun-off into new companies, one of which was Linotype Library GmbH. This new company was responsible solely for the acquisition, creation and distribution of digital fonts and related software. This spin-off effectively divorced the company’s font software business from the older typesetting business which was retained by Heidelberg. In 2005, Linotype Library GmbH shortened its name to Linotype GmbH, and in 2007, Linotype GmbH was acquired by the parent of Monotype Imaging, Inc.

The typefaces in the Linotype type library are the artwork of some of the most famous typeface designers of the 20th Century. The library contains such famous trademarked typefaces as Palatino and Optima by Hermann Zapf; Frutiger, Avenir and Univers by Adrian Frutiger; and Helvetica by Max Miedinger and Eduard Hoffman. Linotype GmbH frequently brings out new designs from both established and new type designers. Linotype has also introduced FontExplorer X for Mac OS X. It’s a well reviewed font manager that allows users to browse and purchase new fonts within the program — a business model similar to that used by iTunes and the iTunes Store.

I’m taking the liberty of duplicating an internal link here from the “Action Videos” page because it’s modern and informative.  It is of old employee Frank Romano documenting the history of MergenthalerLinotype from hot lead days through the 1980s… alternately straightforward and humorous.  Hopefully the link does not age into one requiring a membership on their site, and, you’ll need Flash to view it:  http://whattheythink.com/video/37273-week-with-frank-romano-documenting-history-mergenthaler/

In 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the New York City strike by the typesetters union against the big papers. The membership, Luddite-like, was put off by the prospect of the means of their livelihoods, Linotype Machines, being consigned to the scrap pile as papers became computerized.

“But technology had pronounced a death sentence. After nearly a century, the magnificent Linotype machine, with its unwieldy keyboard and its attached vessel of molten metal, was on the verge of obsolescence as computerized, ‘cold’ typography made inroads everywhere. Operating and maintaining the Linotype process required large numbers of workers, and the process itself was relatively slow and cumbersome. ‘You knew the unions were going to go out of business, that something was coming,’ says Jimmy Breslin. ‘There were too many people tinkering with freaking machinery.’ ”

The last chapter for the ‘History of the Linotype Company’

Friday, July 25, 2014

 

Frank Romano got the idea for his book 50 years ago when he began working in the mailroom of the Mergenthaler Linotype Co. When the company was changing headquarters, he was assigned to pack up the executive suite for the move.

“Well, I saved the materials and carried it from home to home and office to office,” said Romano. Five years ago, he began assembling and studying his collected materials and the result is a new book on the history of one of the landmark typesetting and printing industries. It’s the latest volume by the RIT professor emeritus and renowned authority on graphic communications, printing and publishing—author of 50 books.

His new book, History of the Linotype Company, published by RIT Press, chronicles a business that lasted 127 years—from 1886 to 2013. With Ottmar Mergenthaler’s invention of the Linotype machine, the company became the world’s leading manufacturers of books and newspaper typesetting equipment in North America. Romano’s research details the products, the people, and the corporate activities that kept the company ahead of its competition in hot metal, phototypesetting and pre-press technology. Over 10 corporate entities eventually formed the U.S. manufacturer, which ended its corporate life as a division of a German press maker.

Adding depth to the historical account, Romano saved every press release and photographs from industry companies when he owned a magazine called TypeWorld. “And through Doug Wilson, who made a documentary about the Linotype, I was able to acquire some very rare material from Ottmar Mergenthaler’s daughter and granddaughter,” explained Romano.

According to Romano, nearly 3,000 hot-metal fonts were manufactured by Mergenthaler Linotype from 1886 to 1972. The final chapter of the book contains two comprehensive lists featuring the artwork for every font that Lintoype donated to the Smithsonian in 1998—now housed in the Museum of Printing in North Andover, Mass.

“It’s not easy to encapsulate the heart and soul of an organization, but I tried,” said Romano. “After 127 years, the last resting place of the Linotype Company is in this book.”

History of the Linotype Company is available in softcover for $39.99 at http://ritpress.rit.edu

Oddly enough, it was the little-known South Bend Tribune that was the first paper in the world to become fully computerized. (The things that come out of South Bend!!)  Linotype strike article link where it mentions among other things how this was the beginning of the dumbing-down of average NYC paper readers and turning them into Zombie couch potatoes. “Print’s loss was television’s gain. During the 1962–63 strike, many newspaper readers shifted their loyalty to the television, permanently.” An NPR audio link to this also.

—But seriously, folks, this is not a worship site for linotype machines.  Really!  However, there is one more related item to include: an obituary.

Edward Rondthaler, Spiritual Heir of Ottmar Mergenthaler

In an amazing coincidence, there was recently published in the NY Times for 8-30-9 the obituary for Edward Rondthaler, a typesetting industry pioneer, among other things.  Given the closely-related spelling of his name to ol’ Ottmar Merganthaler and how Ed effectively bridged the gap between the old and new technologies in printed page setup, I thought I’d include his information here also.  Edward lived to a ripe old age and had another unrelated notable life’s work.  Read on.

Edward Rondthaler, Bridged Gap Between Mergenthaler Linotype and Desktop Publishing, Dies at 104*

By MARGALIT FOX

Edward Rondthaler was one of the 20th century’s foremost men of letters — actual, physical, audible letters. As an outspoken advocate of spelling reform, he spent decades trying to impose order on his 26 lawless charges. As a noted typographer who first plied his trade 99 years ago, he helped bring the art of typesetting from the age of hot metal into the modern era.

From the early 1960s on, Mr. Rondthaler was known publicly for his energetic campaign to re-spell English, a cause that over the centuries has been the quixotic mission of an impassioned few. To spell the language as it sounds, he argued, would vanquish orthographic hobgoblins, promote literacy and make accessible to foreign readers English classics like Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale” — or, more properly, “Oed to a Nietingael” — whose opening lines appear on this page.

Long before that, Mr. Rondthaler had already established a national reputation by helping usher in the age of photographic typesetting. Phototypesetting was for decades a vital bridge between the hot-metal days of old and the digital typography of today.

A man of strong constitution and ardent enthusiasms, Mr. Rondthaler died on Aug. 19. He was 104 and attributed his longevity to having taken cold showers daily since 1918.

His death, at his home in Cedar City, Utah, was confirmed by his son, Tim. Mr. Rondthaler previously lived for many years in Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y.

Mr. Rondthaler first became known more than 70 years ago for his seminal work in photographic typesetting. In the mid-1930s, he and a colleague, Harold Horman, perfected a phototypesetting device that helped streamline the traditional art of setting type. Known as the Rutherford photo-lettering machine, it was one of the first such devices in wide commercial use.

Armed with their new machine, the two men founded Photo-Lettering Inc., a highly respected New York typographic house whose clients included many of the country’s best-known magazines and advertising agencies.

But over time, Mr. Rondthaler came to feel his beloved letters were traducing him with their unruly behavior on the printed page. So he took up the standard for spelling reform. For decades afterward, he championed SoundSpel, a simplified English spelling system he had refined from an earlier model.

“Foenetic speling wil maek reeding and rieting neerly automatic for evrybody,” Mr. Rondthaler wrote in SoundSpel, in a passage quoted by The New York Times in a 1977 profile.

Mr. Rondthaler was a past president and the chairman emeritus of the American Literacy Council, an organization dedicated to, among other things, simplifying English spelling. With Edward J. Lias, he edited the reference book “Dictionary of American Spelling: A Simplified Alternative Spelling for the English Language” (American Language Academy, 1986).

Edward Rondthaler III was born on June 9, 1905, in Bethlehem, Pa. His father was a bishop of the Moravian Church, as was his paternal grandfather. Edward III was reared in Winston-Salem, N.C., where his father was president of Salem College.

At 5, Edward received a toy printing press as a gift and began publishing his own newspaper. (It was a very small newspaper, about the size of a postcard, his son said.) Only a few years later, he and a friend opened a print shop in a nearby basement, doing jobs for paying customers; they ran the business through high school and for a year afterward, to earn college money.

After studying at Westminster Choir College — besides singing, he played the flute, oboe and bassoon — Mr. Rondthaler earned a bachelor’s degree in psychology from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, in 1929. He wrote his senior thesis on the effects of different typefaces on the reader’s perception of a text.

Mr. Rondthaler then moved to New York, where he was an art director for a commercial typesetter. In 1936, he and Mr. Horman founded Photo-Lettering, which specialized in headline and display type. The company was built around their new phototypesetting machine, which helped modernize a technology that had changed little in hundreds of years.

For centuries, type was cast in molten lead and set painstakingly by hand. In the mid-20th century, the advent of phototypesetting freed the alphabet from its leaden shackles, making it possible to manipulate letters as pure photographic images. The process let type be shrunk, enlarged, stretched and squeezed without casting a single drop of metal.

Mr. Rondthaler also helped found the International Typeface Corporation, which designed and licensed many commercial fonts, and the Type Directors Club.

Unleashed on the page, however, Mr. Rondthaler’s letters grew devious. “O,” a small sweet orb in the typographer’s hand, became a shape-shifting fiend, pronounced “owe” (as in so), “ah” (as in on) and “ih” (as in women). And so on.

Such anarchy, Mr. Rondthaler came to believe, helped cause illiteracy and with it, a web of social ills. Among them, as he wrote in the 1977 profile in The Times, were “jooveniel delinquensy, criem-in-th-streets, hard cor unemploiment and poverty.”

In promoting SoundSpel, Mr. Rondthaler cast his lot with some eminent spelling-reform advocates of the past. One was George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), who established a bequest for the design of a new English alphabet. Another was President Theodore Roosevelt, who in 1906 decreed that 300 English words be officially respelled. (After a vitriolic, highly literate national debate that raged in the newspapers for months, the House of Representatives rejected the plan.)

If Mr. Rondthaler’s campaign, like most efforts to reform English spelling, did not bear much fruit, he had a great deal else to occupy his time. He wrote several books, among them “Alphabet Thesaurus: A Treasury of Letter Designs” (Reinhold, 1960) and a memoir, “Life With Letters — As They Turned Photogenic” (Hastings House, 1981).

He was a prolific writer of letters to the editor, of this newspaper and others, on a variety of subjects. He wrote a song honoring the 100th anniversary of the Croton Dam. He invented things, including a slide rule that calculated currency-exchange rates and another slide rule that computed cooking times of foods based on weight.

After he turned 100, Mr. Rondthaler embarked on a new career in television commercials, appearing in campaigns for Pearle Vision and Genworth Financial.

Besides his son Tim, Mr. Rondthaler is survived by six grandchildren and 11 great-grandchildren. Two other sons, Edward IV and David Lee, died before him; his wife of 72 years, the former Dorothy Reid, died in 2002.

In 1920, at 15, young Mr. Rondthaler bought a 2-cent card and addressed it to a classmate. Inside, he wrote, “The bluebirds are flying from my heart to you.” His message was written in standard orthography.

Reader, she married him.

Bluebird sez, "No more cold showers."

Bluebird sez, “No more cold showers!. That was no way to celebrate the end of World War One. What were you thinking??!”

(fromhttp://goldtent.net/wp_gold/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/bluebird-of-happiness.jpg)

*I rewrote the obit headline for the purposes of this page.  In the Times it originally reads, “Edward Rondthaler, Foenetic Speler, Dies at 104.”

12 Responses to “About: including history of typesetting, the Dumbing-Down of New Yorkers and an Obit (though this blog really has nothing to do with any of this)”

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